Yesterday, I wrote about all the amazing things the trillions of symbiotic microbes that live in our guts do for us. If we want to keep them happy, we need to feed them lots of complex carbohydrates, mostly in the form of whole plant foods. Here are some recipes I took to the farmers markets last week for my gut flora talk. Folks gobbled them up, and I’m guessing so did their microbes.
- Try to incorporate whole grains and new kinds of grains into your meals. Add in lots of fresh herbs and spices for added phytonutrients. Use unfiltered extra virgin olive oil – it has more antioxidants and keeps longer without going rancid than filtered olive oil – and work in kefir or yogurt for their nutrition as well as their ability to lighten dough and keep it moist once cooked. Here’s a recipe that does all that.
Herbed Whole Grain and Kefir Flat Breads
- 2⅓ cups whole wheat flour
- 1 cup chickpea flour (also called besan)
- 1 teaspoon cumin seeds
- 1 teaspoon paprika
- 1 teaspoon salt
- 3 tablespoons minced mixed fresh herbs (I used cinnamon basil, parsley, garlic chives and dill)
- 1/4 cup packed chopped scallions, white and green parts
- 3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
- 1 cup kefir or plain yogurt
Combine all the ingredients, except the oil and the kefir, in a large bowl and toss to combine well. Drizzle in the oil and toss the mixture lightly to disperse it through the mixture. Pour in the kefir or yogurt and mix in well with your hands.
When well combined, turn out onto the counter and knead well for a few minutes. Cut the dough into 16 equal pieces and roll them into balls. Cover with plastic wrap and let them sit for 1/2 hour or more before rolling out and cooking.
When ready to cook, sprinkle a little flour on the counter and roll the balls out into thin rounds about 6 inches in diameter. Heat a heavy skillet or griddle over medium high heat and cook the breads as you continue rolling.
Cook the breads on one side for a few minutes until small bubbles begin to appear in the surface of the bread. Flip the bread and continue cooking a minute or two. The bubbles should puff up a bit and the bottom will also have several small rounds of brown.
Stack the breads on a plate as you cook them – this will keep them moist. Serve as you go, or when all the breads are cooked. They can be cooled in the stack then covered with plastic and refrigerated for a day or two before serving. Reheat on the skillet or allow to come to room temperature before eating.
- Eat lots of fresh greens. One way to do this is by turning herbs into sauces to liven up other foods. Check out Indian cookbooks for many such recipes – this mint and cilantro and hot pepper recipe is very common in many parts of India.
Mint and Cilantro Chutney
- 2 cups mint leaves
- 1 cup cilantro leaves
- 2 hot green peppers, such as jalapenos, seeded and chopped (leave in seeds if you want this very spicy)
- 1/4 cup lime juice
- 1/4 cup water
- 2 teaspoons sugar
- salt to taste
Combine all ingredients in the bowl of a food processor. Pulse until it becomes a chunky puree. Taste for seasonings and add more of any of the seasonings as desired. This will keep, sealed in a jar in the refrigerator for several days.
- Kamut is an ancient form of wheat from Egypt and is easy to find in grocery stores these days. It stays chewy, even after being soaked and cooked, and adds a lot of body to this Mediterranean style-salad. If you are avoiding wheat of all kinds, simply leave it out.
Kamut, Feta and Vegetable Salad
- 2 cups cooked Kamut (follow directions on the package)
- 3 cloves garlic, minced or put through a garlic press
- 1 medium red onion, chopped
- 1 medium sweet red pepper, seeded and chopped
- 4 ounces feta cheese, crumbled
- 1 medium chopped cucumber (peel it in stripes, if it’s organic, to leave on a bit of skin)
- 2 cups chopped fresh cherry tomatoes, cut into quarters
- 1 tablespoon chopped dill
- 1 tablespoon chopped parsley
- 1 tablespoon chopped mint
- good olive oil and vinegar, to taste
Combine all ingredients. Refrigerate if not serving immediately.
- Try to find ways to make desserts that use healthier ingredients. Here, olive oil replaces butter, nutritious ground walnuts replace some of the flour, and oranges and blueberries (you can substitute other nuts and fruits), add vitamins and antioxidants.
Blueberry Walnut Cake
- 3 eggs
- grated rind one orange
- 1/2 cup orange juice
- 3/4 cup extra virgin olive oil
- 1 generous cup walnut pieces
- 3/4 cup sugar
- 2/3 cup whole wheat flour
- 2/3 cup white flour
- 1½ teaspoons baking powder
- 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
- 1/2 teaspoon salt
- 1½ cups fresh blueberries, rinsed and dried
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees (325 if a convection oven). Oil an 8 inch square pan, line with parchment paper, oil the paper, then dust the whole thing with flour. Set aside.
Whisk together the eggs, then whisk in the orange juice and olive oil. Set aside.
Place the walnut pieces, sugar and orange rind in the bowl of a food processor and pulse until the walnut pieces are finely ground. Set aside.
In a large bowl, whisk together the flours, baking powder, baking soda and salt. Add the walnut-sugar mixture and whisk until homogenous. Add 1 cup of the blueberries and toss to coat with the dry ingredients.
Pour the liquid ingredients into the dry ingredients and gently fold together using a rubber spatula until well combined and there are no large lumps of dry ingredients remaining.
Pour the batter into the prepared pan. Sprinkle the remaining berries over the top of the cake. Bake in the preheated oven for 50 mins. – 1 hour, turning once so it cooks evenly.
- Use local ingredients with short shelf lives as they become available. Yellow Transparent Apples are a tart heirloom variety good for eating and cooking that ripens in August at the same time as mulberries – a sweet, nutritious, dark purple berry that grows on a tree. Both are perishable, which means they’re hard to find even at farmer’s markets. Pick them yourself when you can find them – they’re a summer treat that you will never find in winter. And if you can’t find them, simply substitute another tart cooking apple and whatever berry is available, including frozen ones (just don’t thaw them before adding them to the apples).
Transparent Yellow Apple and Mulberry Oat Crumble
For the Oat Crumble:
- 1 cup oat flour
- 1 cup whole rolled oats (not quick cooking)
- 2 sticks cool unsalted butter cut into chunks (plus a little more for the pan)
- 2 teaspoons cinnamon
- a pinch of salt
- 1 cup sugar
Put the oat flour, 1 teaspoon of cinnamon and one stick of butter chunks in the bowl of a food processor. Pulse several times, until the mixture is crumbly with some chunks about the size of a pea. Put the mixture into a large bowl.
Put the whole rolled oats, the other stick of butter chunks and the other teaspoon of cinnamon into the bowl of the food processor and pulse until the mixture begins to come together into loose clumps – don’t over-process. Add the mixture to the mixture in the bowl.
Add the sugar and the pinch of salt to the bowl. Toss with your fingers, until the mixture takes a chunky crumble texture. Place in the refrigerator or a cool spot until the filling is ready.
For the filling:
- 2 pounds Yellow Transparent or other tart summer apple (2½ pounds if organic and in need of a lot of trimming), peeled, cored, and cut into thin slices
- 3 cups fresh mulberries or raspberries
- the juice of 1/2 lemon
- 3 tablespoons flour
- 1/4 cup light summer honey
1/4 cup of Oat Crumble (removed from the completed crumble recipe)
Preheat the oven to 375 degrees (350 if a convection oven). Butter a 13 x 8 inch oval baking dish (you may also use a rectangular dish of a similar size).
Combine the ingredients in a large bowl and toss to combine. Pour into the buttered baking dish. Sprinkle the remaining crumble evenly over the top of the fruit.
Place in the oven and bake, turning once or twice so the crumble browns evenly. The crumble is done when the crumble is golden and the fruit bubbling in the center.
Allow to cool for at least an hour before serving to set the syrup in the fruit filling. Serve warm or at room temperature.
- Soba Noodles are made of buckwheat, and sometimes buckwheat with a little bit of wheat. If you are gluten intolerant, be sure to buy only noodles that are 100% buckwheat. They come in packages with single servings divided out with a paper wrapper. They are often served tossed with sesame oil, chilled and with a variety of toppings.
Soba Noodles with Toppings
- Soba noodles, cooked (follow package instructions) one bunch per person, rinsed with cold water and tossed with a little sesame oil to prevent sticking
- cucumbers mixed with a little grated ginger, vinegar, and salt
- fresh tomatoes chopped and mixed with a little sesame oil, chopped scallions and salt
Place noodles into bowls and then allow diners to top them as desired.
- Cut back on your meat consumption by mixing meat with grains and vegetables. Here, ground beef is mixed with a quinoa pilaf to make meatballs that are then cooked in a roasted carrot and tomato sauce.
Tomato Carrot Sauce
- 1 pound carrots
- 2 pounds tomatoes
- olive oil
- 1 large onion, peeled and minced
- 3 cloves garlic, peeled and minced olive oil
- 1 quart water or stock
- 1 tablespoon dried basil or 2 tablespoons fresh basil chopped
- salt and pepper to taste
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Clean the carrots and trim them of the leaf end and spindly root end. Cut into pieces that are 3 or 4 inches in length. Toss with a little olive oil and place on a baking sheet and put into preheated oven. Bake for about 1 hour, until tender.
At the same time, cut tomatoes into even pieces and toss in olive oil and bake in the same way as the carrots.
When both are tender, remove from oven and set aside until cool enough to handle. Place in batches in the bowl of a food processor and pulse until pureed. Set aside.
Saute the onions and garlic in olive oil heated in a large skillet until translucent, then add the pureed carrots and tomatoes. Add the water or stock, basil and salt and pepper. Allow to simmer for 1/2 hour or so, then remove from heat and either use immediately or cool be before using. It may be refrigerated for a week or frozen for up to 4 months.
Beef and Quinoa Meatballs in Tomato Carrot Sauce
- 1 medium onion, peeled and minced
- 3 cloves garlic, peeled and minced
- 2 tablespoons olive oil
- 3/4 cup white quinoa
- 1 pound ground beef
- 1 teaspoon ground cumin
- salt and ground black pepper to taste
- 1/2 recipe roast tomato and carrot sauce
Heat the olive oil in a large skillet. Saute the onion and garlic until softened. Add the quinoa and saute for about 5 minutes, until lightly browned and glossy. Remove from heat and cool.
When cooled, mix with the ground beef, cumin and salt and pepper. Form into small meatballs about 1 inch in diameter.
Brown the meatballs in a large skillet in batches if necessary to prevent crowding. When all the meatballs have been browned, put them back into the pan and add the sauce. Cover and simmer until the meatballs are cooked through. The quinoa will have expanded and the “tails” turned white.
Serve the meatballs warm or at room temperature.